Wednesday, 25 March 2020

Chemistry

Electrochemical reactions and their mechanisms in organic chemistry

Electrochemical reactions and their mechanisms in organic chemistry

Electrochemical reactions 


Electrochemical reactions are defined as the process of passing an 
electric current between two substances that involve the transport of electrons, so that one of the two substances is solid and the other is liquid.

The  occurrence of a chemical reaction is accompanied 
by heat absorption or liberation.

Types of electrochemical reactions :

  • Simple redox reaction.
  • Reactions that produce gases.
  • Reactions the deposit dissolve metals.
  • Oxidation and reduction of organic compounds.



This article will mention the definition , types and examples for 
an electrochemical cell (Simple Redox Reaction).



Electrochemical cell


Electrochemical cells are defined as devices that use the principles of electrochemistry, that is, chemical reactions to generate electrical currents between electrodes or vice versa.

These cells are used in many computers and mobile phones to make life easier and more enjoyable.

These cells have two types: 


  • Galvanic cells .
  • Electrolysis cells.


The two types of electrochemical cell will be defined as follows:

Electrolysis cells

Electrolysis cells drive chemical reactions by passing electrical energy, and these cells consist of two poles, the electrode at which the electrons are lost by the occurrence of the oxidation process is known as the elevator and the electrode that acquires electrons by the occurrence of the cathodic reduction in an electron molten and this molten is a saline solution.

The electric current is connected to the electrodes, which provides energy that drives the chemical reaction in the solution, which is called the process of electrolysis

For example, the electrolysis of NaCl solution, where the two electrodes are immersed in the molten solution and then the Chemical mounted in each pole, leading to the pumping of electrons by the energy source from the electrode to another and thus to obtain the positive sodium ion and chlorine gas any access to chemical energy.

Electrolytic cell is a common form of rechargeable battery like cell phones and mp3's.

Electrolytic cell can also be used in electroplating which is coating an electrical conductive object with a thin layer of metal using electrical current.


Electroplating Sometimes is used to give metal a particular properties like corrosion protection , wear resistance and production of jewellery.

Electro refining or electrowinning is similar to electroplating but in larger scale.

Electrolysis other applications are :

production of chemicals like aluminum and chlorine are only produced by electrolysis.


Electrolytic reduction of metals from their compounds such as sodium , calcium , magnesium and aluminum.

Electro-forming is the process of metal formation in which parts are fabricated by electrodeposition on mandrel.

Decomposition of compounds occurs when one reactant breaks down into two or more products like water broke down into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis.



Galvanic cells

Galvanic cells or voltage cells use chemical oxidation and reduction reactions instead of the chemical reaction produced by electricity to produce electrical energy.

Galvanic cell sometimes called voltaic cell or daniell cell.

Galvanic cell example is the  battery being used in the device uses redox energy.

Common household battery is an example of galvanic cell.

For example when a galvanic cell is formed in a single container in which the oxidation and reduction reaction occurs between the aqueous solutions of zinc and copper, for example, and this is done with oxidation of zinc and copper reduction This results in a flow of electrons through the wire connected to the poles, and the problem is that this flow when the zinc solution becomes positively charged and the negatively charged copper solution will stop. T that solution is found in the tube the opportunity to move ions and this allows the constant flow of electrons.




Applications on the electrochemical cell


Electrochemical cell  important application  is  the battery , it is present everywhere and the modern world depends on it as a source of portable energy.

It is found in portable devices, hearing aids and cars, and the batteries contain three main parts:

  • The separator, a substance that separates the positive electrode from the negative electrode and prevents A contact occurs between them.
  • The electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
  • The electrodes made of conductive materials. The positive electrode is called the cathode, the place where the electrons enter during the discharge, and the negative electrode is called the elevator, the place from which the electrons move.


It is worth noting that these electrodes consist of and between them a liquid substance that contains particles or ions charged with electricity.

so that these ions combine with those substances that make up the electrodes, which leads to the production of chemical reactions that allow the battery to generate an electric current.

The process of extracting minerals is also one of the applications Important for the electrochemical cell.


  • For example copper is obtained by electrolysis in a solution of aqueous copper sulfate, aluminum, titanium and alkali metals are also extracted from molten salts by electrodeposition.
  • Copper plays an important role in electrical industry as it is very conductive but one of its problems that it must be pure and one of the methods to make the copper pure is electrowinning.


Why do we need to study chemistry in computer engineering ?

Because it helps you if you need to know how the motherboard are made and what it’s components and from which materials  these components are made.

As computer basics consists of  microprocessor  which are 
composed of certain substances  based upon their abilities to control the flow of electricity , in order to know what why when and how much to add you need to study chemistry.


And for the other side for the uses of computers in chemistry they can be divided to some categories in programming:
  • Time dependent differential equation
  • Time independent differential equation used for Schroedinger equation which is solved in two main fields
           1. The structure of molecules
           2. The Vibrational frequencies
  • Random Variables and stochastic process important for diffusion and noise.
  • Data-analysis including 3-D data plotting algorithms.
  • Bioinformatics tools for DNA genomics.



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