Saturday, 28 March 2020

Introduction To Computer

Information about the computer and its most important components and how to deal with it, that is what we will talk about today. The computer has become the language of this era, as it performs tasks that exceed human tasks, and it has the ability to work in more than one job at the same time, because it is equipped with sophisticated and modern things that help it I have to do all the tasks, and because we realize its importance, we will now provide you with an article that includes information about the computer, its most important components and how to deal with it.

What is a computer?

A computer is an electronic device that can solve various problems, process data, store and retrieve data, and perform calculations faster and more efficiently than humans.

Computer system definition:

The first thing that we will talk about during a computer information topic, as it is considered a group of entities (hardware and live programs) that are designed to receive, process, manage and present information in a meaningful form.

Introduction to Computer components :

Operating system components:

The operating system is the mediator between physical devices and the user and consists of several specific layers of units that transfer data between the user and the devices, and all applications operate on top of the operating system.

Introduction to components of computer system :

1- Input devices:

These are devices that take information from the user of the computer system, convert it into electrical signals and send it to the processor, the input unit that is the means of communication between humans and the computer.


The keyboard is very similar to the standard typewriter keyboard with some additional keys, the basic character QWERTY format is preserved for ease of use of the system, and additional keys are included to perform certain special functions, these keys are known as function keys that differ in number from keyboard to Another keyboard.

Using the keyboard is one of the simplest units of input as it is used by pressing the letters or numbers that you want to enter into the device. It includes the keyboard and includes letters, numbers, punctuation and symbol keys on the traditional typewriter.


A device that controls the movement of the cursor on the display, which is a small sign that you can scroll on the surface of the screen, and its name is derived from its shape, which looks a little like a real mouse while moving the mouse, the cursor moves on the display in the same direction.

The mouse usually contains two buttons:
Button north and right button, and it also has a wheel between buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through information screens.

 The touchpad:

The touchpad is a pointing device (input position control) on the computer display It is an alternative to the mouse The touch panels were originally integrated in laptop computers, and are also used for use with desktop computers The touchpad works by sensing the movement of the user's fingers and pressing to lower.

Optical pen:

The optical pen is an input device that uses a photosensitive detector to locate objects on the display.

Joy Stick :

A joystick is a cursor control device used in computer games . 

The joystick which got its name from the control stick used by a pilot to control the ailerons and elevators of an airplane, is a hand-held lever that pivots on one end and transmits its coordinates to a computer.

Track Ball :

Consists of  a ball  held by a socket containing sensors to detect a rotation of the ball about two axes.

It is like an upside-down mouse with a ball 
that sticks out.

User moves the ball with their thumb or fingers, and sensors inside the case detect which direction the ball is moving.

Scanner :

Capture images from photos , posters , magazine pages for editing and display .

Scanning can be black and white or in colors.

Graphic Tablet :

Also known as digitizer , drawing tablet ,drawing pad , pen tablet or art board.

Enables user to hand draw images with a special pen and contains animations and graphics .

Microphone : 

Captures audio by converting sound waves into electrical waves.

Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR) : 

Used in banks due to large number of checks processed everyday.

Optical Character Reader(OCR) : 

Enables the translation of digital texts  and numbers into electronic documents. 

Bar Code Reader : 

Read printed barcodes  and send the data to computer .

It translate optical impulses into electrical signals.

Optical Mark Reader(OMR) :

Can convert different types of documents captured by digital camera into editable data.

Introduction to computer parts :

2- Output devices:

Output devices take data from a computer system and convert it into a human-readable form. For example, the screen creates a visual electronic display to output the information the wizard created for the user.


It is one of the most important output units in the computer, because it shows everything and is irreplaceable, and despite the importance of the screen, it is not suitable for use without some other device such as a keyboard and mouse.


These are the output units that output the sound to the listening person. Examples of audible data are songs or any other sound you want to hear.

Processing devices:

Processing devices are among the important things that we will talk about during the topic of information about the computer, because they are the components responsible for processing information within the computer system.

CPU Functions:
  • Operation data.
  • Sequence of control of commands within computers.
  • It is reported that the processing unit gives orders to all parts of the computer.
  • It is the main memory usage control for storing data and instructions.
  • Provides buffering (RAM) and permanent storage (ROM) of data.

? Why we Study Introduction to Computer in computer engineering
  • To know the Parts of the computer and from which it consists of .
  • To know how to connect these parts in the computer.
  • You will Study these hardware parts in details in the college after that.
  • You will learn how these Parts talk together in computer organization .
  • You will learn how each part work separately in computer organization.

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