Thursday, 2 April 2020

Fundamentals of electronics


Basics of  Electronics :

  • Electricity
  • Circuits
  • Resistance
  • Series Vs. Parallel
  • Basic Components
  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • Diodes
  • Transistors
  • Integrated Circuits
  • Potentiometers
  • LEDs
  • Switches
  • Batteries
  • Breadboards
  • Wire

 

Fundamentals Of Electronics, this article is a summary paper of the most important electronics ideas and concepts, the basics of electricity such as current, resistance, power, and some important and must-have electronic components.

 

The general principle of the stream

The atoms generally consist of a nucleus and a group of electrons, and the conducting materials of the electric current are composed of a nucleus and a group of surface electrons with a weak connection with them, and any simple induction will lead to leaving their place and moving to a neighboring atom, and the same thing happens at the level of the rest of the atoms.

 

Fundamentals Of Electronics In order to induce these electrons to move in an orderly and sufficient quantity, we use what is called a power source or what is called a potential difference generator (potential difference).

 

The electric current refers to the movement of electrons, but in the opposite direction, i.e. from (+) to (-), so the movement of electronics is from (-) to (+).

 

Material, current, voltage, resistance

Depending on whether or not electrical charges can be transported, materials are classified into three types: insulating (not transportable) - conveyor (having transportability) - semi-conductive (transportable, but with certain electrical conditions).

 

It is termed to measure the strength of the current passing through the electrical circuit as “current” and it is measured in amperes A and in practice, the parts of this one are used in electronic circuits, for example:

 

The greatest theoretical current value that can be obtained from the USB port is 500mA or 0.5A.

 

It is termed to measure the obstruction of the material transfer to the electric current (due to physical factors such as impurities or the shape of the material or its temperature) as “resistance” and it is measured in Ohm. Practically everything in this life is resistance. Insulators such as air have a resistance not very large and copper wires have small resistance.

 

The energy that induces the electrons to move from one electrode to another is termed "electric potential" and is measured in volts. The effect of voltage in a circuit can be likened to a pump that induces water.

 

Voltage divider

It is derived from Ohm's Law, a law frequently used in electrical circuits and is called a voltage divider, and it is based on the principle: “The current is equal in the series junction elements and the sum of the voltage drops on the elements is equal to the total applied voltage”.

 

Note: The output is always between a point and the ground (the reference voltage) because in measuring the voltage the point that determines the positiveness of the negative is the reference point with zero potential which is called conventionally ground.

 

Sources of effort

Potentials are anything that creates a potential difference that moves electrons. As realistic examples: battery - USB port - solar cells ... etc.

The values ​​for voltage sources are unlimited, but as common values, ​​we encounter in electronic circuits: 5V - 3.3V - 9V - 12V.

 

The voltage we want can be obtained using voltage regulators such as the 78xx circuit breaker, where xx is the value we want. Example: 5V 7805.

 

The most important thing while working with a circuit that has more than one voltage source is to unify the negative (ground) points of these sources.

 

Ability and resistance

One of the common terms in electrical systems is power, and it has multiple meanings physically, as the energy expended, for example, in a lamp is lighting.

 

Mathematically, it is given by the following relationship: P = U.I, and in practical resistors, it varies according to the capacity that can be tolerated and as common values, ​​there are resistors 1/4 watt, 1/2 watt, 1 watt, and other hash.

 

Example: 470 ohms/quarter watt resistance, meaning that its value is 470 and bear current and voltage on both ends, resulting in multiplying them a value that does not exceed a quarter of a watt.

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