Tuesday, 14 July 2020

Advanced physics





Advanced physics, the term modern physics refers to the principles of Newtonian physics and its consequences and laws, and it includes (quantum mechanics / Einstein's relativity), and starting with special relativity as an evolution to see new physicists with experiments that fought against the ether hypothesis, we start the story of physics Modern.

Ether

It is a theory that states the necessity of a vector or spreader of the optical spectrum.

It includes advanced physics, the relativity that Einstein developed from Galileo and generalized, through which he demonstrated that the whole is in perpetual motion relative to the other, and there is no system in absolute stability or of an absolute dimension, and relativity interprets the phenomena and objects in the universe that behave at high speeds.

One of the principles of relativity is that the speed of light is constant in space for all observers, regardless of the direction of its launch, as this idea fought completely with experiments with the ether hypothesis.

Quantum mechanics emerged to extend the application of physics at all levels, generalize laws, and explain phenomena to subatomic bodies, not just the normal bodies that classical mechanics was explaining.

And at the interface of quantum mechanics is known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle (the principle of uncertainty), which shows us in its formulations that it does not provide deterministic measurements, but possible prophecies and distributions where it is impossible to determine the position and the amount of motion at the same time as a categorical particle.

Cosmic scientific logic, general relativity appeared to describe gravity in modern physics and to explain the phenomena of bodies with a huge mass in the framework of time and space, where gravity is interpreted as a curvature in space-time, and the theory had important assumptions built upon it such as black holes that are described as distorting space and attract anything in its field Even the light, as it does not escape from its scope either.

This does not mean getting rid of Newton's laws (he is still studying in the curriculum) because great distances and small speeds fall under the roof of classical mechanics. Whereas modern physics deals with extreme states [quantum mechanics includes approximate distances to atomic dimensions (9- ^ 10 meters), and relativity includes velocities close to the speed of light (8 ^ 10 m / s)]. This is because classical physics has failed to describe it.

Example

An analysis of gas behavior at room temperature uses the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (classic) except that, close to absolute zero (k 0 ° K), this distribution fails to describe the gas behavior, and instead uses the Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics ( the talk).

Advanced physics

If we consider that the light is moving through the medium of "ether" then it must be possible to measure the difference in the speed of light in two opposite directions due to the movement of the earth in the ether.

However, the latter was refuted by his theory

Mickelson and Morley, which is considered the most important experiments in the field of physics by Albert Michaelson and Edward Morley, and it is one of the first strong evidence against "ether" as noted.

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