Wednesday, 7 October 2020

Automatic Control System


An automatic control system, an industrial system that controls industrial processes and electrical actuators through industrial circuit breakers and contactors.


Control system components:


Any control system consists of three basic components:



Sensors are a type of (Transducers) that change the form of energy from one type to another and have two types: direct sensors such as a medical thermometer where the temperature can be read directly from it and indirect sensors such as (Thermocouples), which convert the measured temperature to a corresponding voltage value which You need another device to know the measured temperature. Sensors can be classified according to the type of energy they are measured.



Automatic Control System These may be simple electrical or mechanical systems or computer devices that receive measurements from the sensors.



The actuator is the one who performs the work according to the measured value of the sensor, under the command of the receiver (Responder). For example, controlling electricity to the motor of a home refrigerator.


Automatic control systems:

Any control system is a group of the previous components combined together to manage or lead other systems and control systems are divided into many sections with many differences.


Logic Control

Logic control systems were applied in the past with networks of complementaries (networks of relays) and were designed with the language of (ladder logic). Today, all these systems are based on (PLC). Usually, this system is used to control consecutive mechanical operations such as elevators. Logic control systems are very easy to design and can handle very complex operations.


Sequential Control

The simplest types of control systems are systems with conditional successions, such as the case of a machine that must drill each time a piece of mechanical presented to it. Figure No. (2) shows a diagram of a single open control system (series).


Classification of control systems according to the system elements and tools


The first generation of control systems was based on the electromechanical relay

As a binary-state element for its contacts (Binary State) and it was called the control systems based on the relay element in the Relay Logic Control System, and the relay logic control systems prevailed for decades.


The second generation of control systems is electronic generation

With the advancement of solid-state science, the employment of the transistor as a binary element, on / off, and the improvement of the time response to it, the electromagnetic relay has been replaced by the relay transistor or the solid-state electronic relay.

The third generation of control systems is the digital control systems that are based on microcontrollers and stored operating programs.

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