Sunday, 4 October 2020

Digital image processing


Digital image processing is a representation of two-dimensional images on a computer using 0 and 1 (01). Every digital image on a computer consists of a pixel, which is the smallest unit in the image. And each image is a matrix containing rows and columns of pixels. The more pixels there are, the clearer the image will be, and the digital images are divided into:


1- Binary Image:

And it is the image that contains black and white colors only, and each pixel carries either zero or one.


2- Grayscale Image:

It is the image that contains black and white with grayscale and its intensity is represented by numbers from 0 to 255, where the one represents the white color and the intensity when it is 256, the color of this pixel is black and when this image is represented on the computer, it is represented by equal columns and equal rows of pixels each pixel has 8 Pete defines intensity from 0 to 255.


3- Color Image: 

These are digital images that support colors by allocating three boxes per pixel to determine the intensity of the three basic colors (red, green, and blue) and each box contains 8 bits to write on, for example, the intensity of green maybe 00100000 meaning that there are 24 bits per pixel, But some pictures maybe only 8 bit and contain only 256 colors.


4- There are other ways to represent images

such as that the image is represented as a function f (x, y).


Image processing

Digital image processing Some can imagine that digital image processing means only the processes of decorating the images and inserting some decorations and drawings on them or deleting them to appear after that in another appearance that differs from the original.


However, digital image processing is more than that. In fact, it almost does not care about this aspect of image processing at all.


Whereas here the focus is on the appropriate digital coding of the images and finding ways to process this digital data so that these images or the information that the images carry are usable by a machine that can be a computer, a robot, or other machines.


Digital image processing is of great importance in the field of image perception, that is, when we try, for example, to make the computer or robot understand the image or its meaning, and it is also very important in the field of pattern recognition.


For example, you can depict a robot that recognizes the shape of a human being (for example, a person equals a large rectangle with four small rectangles and a circle branching into it) and greeted him while he does not greet the domestic cat, for example.


Pattern recognition is also of great importance in the automatic processing of images captured by shuttles of the Earth's surface, for example, this is a military use. It is also important in navigation, depending on maps or images from the ground.


Image processing methods

File linear processing: where the image is treated as a signal and digital signal processing methods are applied to it. See Filter (Computer Graphics).


Image processing applications

Identify patterns or objects within the file: for example, you know the locations of human faces (if any) in an image, or sensitivity * the presence of tumors in a radiograph.


Matching multiple photos taken of a place in order to form one large image for that place (panorama).

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