Saturday, 3 October 2020

Information systems theory and practice


Information systems theory and practice, that the theoretical basis for information systems is the system theory of the biologist Buckley who presented for the first time this theory as a general framework and methodology for studying and analyzing natural phenomena.


Thus, this theory, which represents the philosophical framework for the most important scientific and technical concepts in the field of information systems, must be studied and analyzed.


Information systems theory


System Theory represents a comprehensive systematic attempt to study and understand any phenomenon in life and nature, by deconstructing it into its basic elements and components and understanding the relationships of these elements and components within a general framework and perspective that includes all the dimensions and aspects of the phenomenon under study.


General systems theory is the systematic thinking method for the phenomena and things around us.


An approach that transcends the traditional view of things and facts as separate, independent data that are not linked to formative and interactive relationships between them.


That is why Buckley defined the system as that whole consisting of parts interconnected and interacting with each other. As for the scientific methodology through which systems and relationships between the parts of the system can be studied, it is the theory of the system.


System concept

The word system is frequently used in our daily life, such as the cosmic system, the system of the human body. The need to use the concept of order in the field of management has emerged with the steady increase in the size of administrative organizations and the increase in the size of the influence of the external environment on organizations.


Where the system was defined as a group of interconnected, interacting, and integrated elements that aim to achieve one goal. These elements must be one whole.


And that the relationship between the elements of the system is the link that binds them together to achieve their common goal. The system has inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback.


System properties


1. Objective of the system:

Every system in the universe must have a goal that it seeks to achieve, otherwise, there is no justification for its existence, and after determining the general goal of the system, we can define the sub-goals for each of the components of the system, which must work together and in complete coordination to achieve each element its goal that contributes to achieving the general goal of the system.


2. System levels:

Each system in the universe contains a number of subsystems, all of which represent the general overall system. For the purposes of study and analysis, it is preferable to define the general system and then define the subsystems within it and the outputs of each subsystem that are inputs to another subsystem as well as the transfer of the outputs of any subsystem to become inputs to another subsystem are done Across the boundaries of each subsystem, for example, the outputs of the production department are commodities that are inputs, for example, to the marketing department for the purpose of selling these commodities.


3. College and inclusion:

The system as a whole is not merely the sum of its parts and elements. It is in fact the product of the interaction of parts, components, and parts and produces a system from them based on the basis of interaction and mutual integration of its components and elements or its subsystems.


Each subsystem must be viewed as a part of the whole system, that is, an emphasis on the overall view and moving away from the partial view of the relationship of the parts of the system to the total system.


4. Adaptation:

It means the ability of the system to respond to the external environment variables, and open and semi-open systems are distinguished by their ability to respond to the external environment variables. The semi-open systems are more able to adapt and reach the state of balance through its relationship with the external environment because of its ability to control the external environment variables. Through a process of feedback and control.

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