Thursday, 1 October 2020

Introduction to Artificial intelligence





 

Introduction to Artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence is one of the branches of computer science and one of the main pillars of the technology industry in the current era.

 

The term artificial intelligence - referred to by the acronym (AI) - can be defined as the ability of digital machines and computers to perform certain tasks that simulate and resemble those performed by intelligent beings. Such as the ability to think or learn from past experiences or other processes that require mental operations.

 

The goals of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence also aims to reach systems that are intelligent and behave in the way humans do in terms of learning and understanding, so that these systems provide their users with various services from education, guidance, interaction, etc.

 

One year after the Turing test appeared, the first program to use artificial intelligence was created by Christopher Strachey who was Head of Programming Research at Oxford University.

 

As he was able to run the checkers game through a computer and developed it, then Anthony Outinger from the University of Cambridge designed a simulation experiment through a computer for the shopping process that the human person makes in more than one store, and this simulation aimed to measure the ability of the computer to learn, and this was the first A successful trial of what is known as machine learning.

 

Types of artificial intelligence

 

Artificial intelligence can be classified

Depending on its capabilities to three different types as follows: Limited or narrow artificial intelligence: Limited or narrow artificial intelligence is one of the types of artificial intelligence that can carry out specific and clear tasks, such as self-driving cars, or even speech or image recognition programs, Or the game of chess on smart devices, and this type of artificial intelligence is the most common and available type at the present time.

 

Artificial General Intelligence

It is the type that can work with a capacity similar to that of a person in terms of thinking, as it focuses on making the machine able to think and plan on its own and in a manner similar to human thinking, except that there are no practical examples of this type, so all that exists so far is merely research studies It needs a lot of effort to develop and turn it into reality.

 

The artificial neural network method is one of the methods of studying general artificial intelligence, as it is concerned with producing a system of neural networks for a machine similar to those contained in the human body.

 

Artificial Super Intelligence

Artificial superintelligence is the kind that may exceed the level of human intelligence, and which can do the tasks better than the specialized and knowledgeable human being can do, and this type has many characteristics that it must contain; Such as the ability to learn, plan, automatic communication, and make judgments, but the concept of artificial superintelligence is considered a hypothetical concept that does not have any existence in our time.

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