Thursday, 1 October 2020

What are the Operating systems?



What are the Operating systems, it is known that a computer, or computer, as some call it, is an electronic device capable of receiving and processing data and then storing it or showing it to the user in another way.

 

Of course, the computer must if it wants to perform these functions from devices that help it do so, which are mainly the Processor, Memory, Hard Drive, Keyboard, and Mouse. Which together constitute what is known as the hardware of the computer.

 

What are the Operating systems?

However, the multiplicity of these components and the difficulty of dealing directly with them necessitated the creation of programs capable of controlling the various elements and facilitating their correct use, so the solution was with special software called: operating systems. So what is meant by the operating system?

 

The operating system, or what is known in English (Operating System, for short OS), is the first program you see when you turn on the computer, and the last program you see when it is closed, it is a group of programs responsible for managing the various physical resources of the device, and it is considered an intermediary between the user, Hardware, and Application.

 

His role here is similar to that of the translator for two people, one of whom does not understand the language of the other, by providing a simplified interface for the user that enables him to overcome the various physical complexities of the device. So the operating system does two things:

 

Managing the physical (Hardware) and moral entity (Programs) of computer systems.

Linking applications and equipment without the need to know all their details, which provides a suitable working environment that enables the user to write applications that work on more than one device.

 

Functions of operating systems:

The most common tasks of operating systems are as follows:

 

  • Managing resources and tasks, such as managing main memory, input and output units, handling unit management, and storage units.
  •  Linking the user and the device through the user interface, enabling it to run other programs, the most famous of which are: the command line interface CLI and the graphical interface GUI.
  •  Controlling the path of data, through the process of organizing its transmission from one unit to another.
  •  Managing files and organizing them into folders and indexes, each operating system depends on a specific file system, for example, most current Windows systems rely on NTFS, while Linux distributions use the EXT2,3 system.
  •  Protection, by preventing unauthorized access to certain files on the device.
  •  Controlling input and output units, and this includes controlling data entry via the keyboard, mouse, or other, and output operations by displaying information on the screen or sending it to the printer.
  •  Organizing the programs loaded on the computer, allowing more than one program to run at the same time without any interference between them or errors, by allocating a certain percentage of RAM to each of them (i.e. the programs).
  •  Detect potential malfunctions on the device, and send a detailed report on all events that occurred on the system during the data processing process.

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