Monday, 14 December 2020

Electrical circuits


In electrical circuits, electricity is a group of physical phenomena associated with the existence of matter that possesses the property of electric charge, and in the past, it was known that electricity is not related to magnetism.


However, at a later time, many experimental results and the development of equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism together form one phenomenon called electromagnetism, Electrochemical reactions and many common and different phenomena are related to electricity such as lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electrical discharge, and others.


Electric charge

It is a basic property of matter that is generated by elementary particles, a chemical reaction in electricity the participating particles are electrons that carry a negative charge, and therefore the different forms of electricity are the result of the accumulation or movement of numbers of electrons, and in this article, the electric circuit will be defined.


Definition of an electrical circuit

An electrical circuit can be defined as a path for transmitting electric current. Where an electrical circuit includes a device or component that provides energy to the charged particles that make up current such as a battery or generator, Electrochemical cells, and devices that use currently such as lamps, electric motors, Electrochemical cell computers, connection wires, or transmission lines, there are two basic laws that mathematically describe the performance of circuits Two electrical: Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's rules.


When looking at the surrounding medium, everything that a person can see that can be connected to electricity consists of an electrical circuit, and anything that contains a battery also contains an electrical circuit.


From televisions to computers and from cell phones to microwave ovens, Galvanic cells the whole of life is surrounded by their existence. An electrical circuit can also be defined as a set of electrical elements connected to each other in a ring with a power source.


This allows current - that is, electrons - to flow through it, and its widespread use is what led to a massive explosion in human progress.


Types of electrical circuits

Electrical circuits are distinguished in practical applications that they consist of more than two components that are connected to each other, as for complex circuits that transfer high voltages of electricity through any wires or components, Electrolysis cells as there are two basic methods for connecting more than two components of electrical circuits.


There are two types of electrical circuits, which are as follows:


Series connected circuit

Series connected circuits have only one path for the flow of electricity from one point to another point, where the amount of electricity in the circuit is equal in all elements of the circuit, i.e. the strength of the current in all parts of the circuit is equal, and the total resistance of a series-connected electrical circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances, and the greater The resistors of the series-connected circuit the more difficult the electron flow.


An electrical circuit connected in parallel

Parallel circuits have multiple paths for electricity flowing from one point to another, and all circuit elements are connected between the same set of electrically common points, and resistors and sources are often connected between two sets of electrically common points, Electrorefining and in a parallel circuit, electricity can flow in Multiple directions horizontally and vertically.


And the elements of a parallel circuit have the same voltage across their ends and have identical poles, and since parallel circuits consist of several branches, thus the current is distributed, and the voltage or voltage difference for each branch of the parallel circuit is equal, but the currents are the ones that differ.

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