For Computer Geeks

## Thursday, 17 December 2020

Operation research is the scientific method for decision-making and its applications, and sometimes it can be defined as the scientific method for finding the optimal solution for complex systems. And it has many applications in the military, economic, and agricultural fields.

### Features of Operations Research

1. General in nature to solve many systems and models.
2. Some functions, which are known as target functions, must be optimized for all operations research problems.
3. A real-life problem cannot be solved with scientific research by an individual but rather requires a team.

### The phase of O.R.

The first stage in operations research is to develop a model or formula for the problem under study, where the model is defined as a process of representation of the components of the problem, the influencing factors, the circumstances surrounding the problem, and how to link them.

Operations research takes the concept of a model to describe a specific system, and then the model is implemented to obtain the best way to operate the system.

### problem formulation

Formulating the problem requires a wide awareness of the problem and the various factors and influences surrounding it. In order to formulate the problem, the following must be defined:

• Objectives.
• Alternatives.
• Restrictions.

#### First: the objectives

The nature of the problem in scientific life varies widely, and hardly two problems are similar in two different institutions. Therefore, broad familiarity with the required goals is necessary, and the required goal may be to increase production in a factory, increase the fortifications of a certain force against an external force, reduce costs, or maximize profits.

#### Second: alternatives

In the case of studying a specific problem, there are several ways of working, and the evaluation criterion for different work methods will be the highest measure of efficiency, where efficiency can be measured by profit, cost, number of units, or time .. etc.

The competency scale is used to evaluate possible alternatives to work.

#### Third: restrictions

Each problem has limitations such as money, equipment, raw materials, time, manpower, etc. Therefore, an acceptable solution must live with the limitations imposed by available resources.

#### Work the problem model

The work of the problem model is a process of representing the components of the problem, the influencing factors, the surrounding conditions, and the method of linking them, as the representation of the problem on the formula in the form of a model that helps to understand it. Therefore, the process of developing a model is an effective way to reach a sound decision.

#### Find a solution to the model

After formulating the problem in the form of a mathematical model, the next stage is an attempt to obtain a solution to the problem from the representative model, where the solution is defined as a set of values ​​of the controlled variables that lead to better effectiveness of the system according to the conditions and restrictions placed on the problem.

Sometimes it is not possible to obtain a solution to the problem from the model that represents it, as the solution is defined as a set of values ​​of the controlled variables that lead to better effectiveness of the system according to the conditions and restrictions placed on the problem.

Sometimes the solution cannot be obtained by deterministic mathematical methods, which are from which it is obtained under certain conditions, and in such cases, the solution is extracted by probabilistic or simulated methods.