Thursday, 17 December 2020

Signals and systems


Signals and systems, in signal processing, Signal is a function that conveys information for an event. In electronics and communications, it refers to a time variable voltage, current or electromagnetic waves that carry the information. The signal can also be defined as an observable change in quality like quantity.


Any type, such as a physical quantity that shows a difference in space or time, can be used as a cue to share messages between observers.


Signals and systems


According to IEEE Signal Processing Parameters, the signal can be audio, video, speech, picture, sonar, and related radar, and so on. In another attempt to define a signal, anything that is purely dependent on distance, such as an image, is excluded from the category of signals. It also states that the sign may or may not contain any information.


In nature, signals can be actions an organism makes to alert other organisms, ranging from releasing phytochemicals to warn plants near a predator to sounds or movements the animals make to alert other animals to food.


Signaling occurs in all living things even at cellular levels, with cell signaling. Signaling theory, in evolutionary biology, suggests that the primary driver of evolution is the ability of animals to communicate with each other through the development of signaling methods.


In human engineering, signals are usually provided by a sensor, and often the original form of the signal is converted into another form of power using a transformer. For example, a microphone converts an audio signal into a voltage waveform, and a loudspeaker does the opposite.


Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering have led the way in designing, studying, and implementing systems that include transportation, storage, and information processing.


In the latter half of the twentieth century, electrical engineering itself split into several disciplines, specializing in the design and analysis of systems that deal with physical signals.


Electronic engineering and computer engineering are examples, while design engineering has been developed to deal with the functional design of user-machine interfaces.


Analog and digital signs

There are two main types of signals that are encountered in practice are "analog" and "digital". The figure shows a digital signal resulting from the approximation of an analog signal through its values ​​in certain time situations. Digital signals are "muzzled", while analog signals are continuous.


Any information can be transmitted by an analog signal; Often this signal is a calculated response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, temperature, position, or pressure. The physical variable is converted into an analog signal by a converter.


For example, in an audio recording, fluctuations in air pressure (sound) compress a microphone diaphragm that leads to corresponding electrical fluctuations. The voltage or current is said to be "analog" to sound.

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